Clean Air – What Is It Worth?

Why do we live in the Heber Valley? Why do people come here? Is it only for our incredible mountains with their scenic views and our beautiful fields? Is it for the people — our great neighbors, family and friends? Is it to enjoy our wonderful events, the parks, trails, reservoirs or HVRR? Is it only for the peace and quiet, our privacy and relative lack of traffic — especially off of Heber City’s Main Street?

What is one the common thread about everything we love in this valley?

Think about this: Could it be the clean air? Having clean air is so easy to take for granted, yet what good are our remarkable views if we couldn’t see the mountains because of smog? What good would our state and local parks be, the golf courses, the trails and our beautiful fields without clean air to enjoy them? How could we keep or increase our valley’s tourism appeal without clean air? How can we protect our health and our children’s health without clean air?

The bottom line: How much is it worth to you to keep clean air in this valley?

What’s Happening About Air Quality In Our Valley?

For three years now, the Wasatch County Board of Health has monitored air quality at its office at 500 East and Center Street in Heber. Two years ago, the Board of Health set up other PurpleAir monitors in places across the valley, such as at the Utah Valley University campus, in south Heber by Highway 40, at the Soldier Hollow Charter School in Charleston and at Wasatch Mountain State Park. In March, Heber City installed a PurpleAir monitor at the Heber Valley Airport.

Earlier this year, I developed a presentation for the 2019 Heber City Council’s Strategic Retreat that asked the Council to start several clean air initiatives. This led to a follow-up presentation at the county’s Interlocal Meeting in February 2019, where I proposed setting up a countywide board on air quality.

County Councilor Kendal Crittenden then asked the County Council to let the County Board of Health set up an ad hoc air quality committee, which the County Council approved. In March 2019, the Board of Health also approved the committee and will now reach out to all governments in our county for participation.

As convoluted as this all may sound, the bottom line is that it’s a step in the right direction. The new ad hoc Air Quality Committee can study and make recommendations to the County Board of Health and the local governments in the valley on air quality initiatives, information, grant funding, etc.

I want to personally commend the Wasatch County Council and County Board of Health for being proactive in setting this up. Great job!

What Can You Do?

There is much we can’t control about our air quality. We can’t change this valley’s geography, topography, altitude or weather. Yet we can control our actions and make a difference by doing some simple things.

education is key. Let’s educate ourselves about our air quality. We need to know what it is in real time. Ask your city or county elected officials to install more low-cost PurpleAir monitors or consider installing one yourself. Knowing what our air quality is in real time can help us make better decisions for ourselves and for our children’s health.

encourage your elected officials to look for the County Board of Health’s invitation to join and participate in the new Air Quality Committee. While you’re at it, ask your elected officials to put the PurpleAir quality map link on their websites, too.

read up on vehicle smog ratings at Also, keep an eye out for the new Tier 3 gasolines coming out in January 2020. Tier 3 gasoline will cut car emissions up to 80 percent for 2007 or later model cars! Decide for yourself: Is keeping clean air in this valley worth paying a little more for Tier 3 gasoline? Ask your favorite gas station when it will get Tier 3 gasoline. Let’s all encourage our local gas stations to sell it here!

There is so much more we can all do. My suggestions? Consider installing an Ultra Low NOx water heater and other Energy Star compliant appliances. Try out electric lawn mowers, snow blowers or other gardening equipment. Do a radon test in your home — kits are available at the County Board of Health’s office. Technology can really help us maintain our air quality, if we will use it.

Finally, please think about why you live here. Think about what you are willing to do to preserve what you love in this valley. Clean air is a huge part of enjoying what we love here — please don’t take for granted. Let’s all work together to do what we can now to maintain our air quality for the future generations. 


PM2.5 refers to atmospheric
particulate matter (PM) with a diameter
of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3% the diameter of a human hair.

Human Hair: 100 microns
Particulate PM10: 10 microns
Red Blood Cell: 6-8 microns
Smallest Pollen: 6 microns
Most Bacteria: 2-8 microns
Particulate PM2.5: 2.5 microns

Who Is At Risk?

PM2.5 is small enough to bypass lungs and enter the blood stream. Once inside, PM2.5 remains in our bodies for a long time and can cause cardiovascular and lung damage for at-risk populations.

Purple Air

You can see real time air quality monitoring for the Heber Valley at Search “Heber City, UT” and you will have the option to view multiple days.

If you do this regularly, especially in the wintertime, you’ll see that our valley does get the “red” warning winter inversions. You’ll also see that our valley also gets “yellow” and “orange” warning emission levels during rush hour traffic. Thankfully, the Heber Valley is still an “attainment” area for air quality — which means we are not under state and federal requirements and restrictions yet.

Breaking Down Air Quality in The Heber Valley

The following information was provided by Chris Smoot, MPH, LEHS, an epidemiologist and environmental health scientists with the Wasatch County Health Department.

The Air Quality Index is a scale developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help make air quality data easier to read. For more details on the Air Quality Index, please visit

Below are two graphs of the air quality data the Wasatch County Health Department has collected since October 2016.

The first is a line graph of the daily (24-hour) average concentrations of PM2.5.

The second is a line graph of the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 converted to a score on the Air Quality Index.

A few points of interest on the graphs:

You will notice there are a few gaps where no data is available, particularly in 2017. These gaps are due to our air monitor being down for maintenance and/or repairs.

Also, you will notice some areas with peaks showing times of higher than average PM2.5 levels. The peaks seen in the winter months are due to a buildup of PM2.5 during inversions that occur naturally here in Heber Valley. The peak during the summer/early fall of 2018 is due to smoke and pollutants from the wildfires that occurred locally and in California last year.

Finally, a few notes of explanation and clarification: 

  • The data on these graphs are from an air monitor the Wasatch County Health Department runs for investigative purposes (BAM 1020 from MetOne Instruments). This monitor is not the same as the PurpleAir sensors Heidi Franco talks about her article.

The health department supports PurpleAir’s efforts and have purchased andinstalled some of their monitors throughout the valley. PurpleAir monitors are a great tool for informing the public and giving a good estimate of current air quality conditions; however, they are only for informational purposes and the data are not accepted by EPA for research and/or regulation.

  • The BAM 1020 monitor that collected the attached data takes an hourly reading of PM2.5. For these graphs, Chris averaged the 24 readings of each day to give a daily average, then plotted those averages. He did this because the EPA uses 24-hour average concentration levels of PM 2.5 in their guidance documents and regulations.
  • PM2.5 refers to particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller. These small particles can cause health problems. For more information on PM2.5, please visit

While the EPA has established air quality standards for six air pollutants (a.k.a. criteria pollutants), particulate matter is the one of biggest concerns in our area and, as such, the pollutant that we are currently monitoring.

Hypnotherapy is the application of the relaxed, yet highly focused state known as hypnosis for the purpose of achieving goals and creating lifelong transformation. Hypnosis is a natural state of mind with numerous beneficial characteristics.

In this natural state, our subconscious mind is open and receptive to powerful, positive healing ideas and imagery. In this state, we can learn to manage chronic pain, reduce stress, and change unwanted behaviors. But how and why does our subconscious work? Why can’t we just use our willpower to relax or reduce pain, eat healthier, or stop smoking? To answer these questions and more, consider the story of Chicken Little!

Chicken Little And The Flight Or Fight State

One fine morning, Chicken Little can be seen happily eating tasty corn in the barnyard, when an acorn suddenly falls on her head. Believing the sky is falling, she starts frantically running around, shouting, “The sky is falling! The sky is falling!” Chicken Little’s belief that the sky was falling was so strong that she convinced her emotions, which affected her behaviors and even her physiology. Her little chicken heart started to beat rapidly, her blood pressure went up, her cortisol levels increased, her immune system responses became suppressed, and her perception of pain increased. Chicken Little effectively, “stressed herself out.” What this story demonstrates is that our perceptions influence our autonomic nervous system. In the stress state, also known as the fight or flight state, the sympathetic nervous system is activated. Higher cognitive thinking decreases, and rational thought ceases. Our stress response is natural and designed to protect us from acute threats, but it becomes harmful when we live in that state 24/7. Sadly, many people are living today as if the sky is continuously falling. They are in a state of chronic, underlying stress, which puts them at increased risk of anxiety, depression, weight gain, sleep problems, and more.1

The Subconscious Mind Is Literal, So It Can’t Tell The Difference Between Fact And Fiction.

Living in a constant state of stress, predicting doom and gloom at every turn, means we are effectively saturating our subconscious mind with negative limiting beliefs or false truths. As Chicken Little shows us, this false truth can become our reality. Unlike our conscious mind, which is logical and analytical, the subconscious mind thinks in pictures and is literal. It can’t discern between fact and fiction and so believes what we tell and show it. This is especially true when experiencing a heightened state of emotion, such as fear. The subconscious mind is also the storehouse for all of our memories and beliefs, whether positive or negative. Although we like to think of ourselves as rational beings who make logical decisions, that’s not usually the case. It is our beliefs behind our emotions that drive our behaviors. That is why our conscious mind or willpower never wins over the subconscious.

Hypnotherapy Helps To Clear False Truths And Negative Imagery So You Can Achieve Your Goals.

Hypnotherapy is so effective for people because it works at the subconscious level. During a hypnotherapy session, we quiet the conscious mind so that we can speak directly to the subconscious mind. In the relaxed, yet highly focused state of hypnosis, we can effectively clear false truths and saturate the subconscious mind with healing imagery and positive healing ideas, also known as affirmations or suggestions. Hypnosis is a powerful state. On a physiological level during hypnosis, we shift from the fight or flight state (the sympathetic nervous system) to the resting or safe state, where the parasympathetic nervous system is activated. When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated, the perception of pain decreases (that’s how people learn to control and potentially even eliminate pain naturally). The immune and digestive systems get a boost, and higher mind problem-solving functions are supported.

What False Truths Have Resulted From Past Emotional And Physical Trauma?

People learn to rewire the brain to support their goals and to achieve transformation. Until we clear the negative beliefs and imagery that frequently result from past emotional and physical traumas, problems can remain or take a very long time to resolve. Pain worsens, self-worth suffers, unhealthy habits continue, and so on. Integral hypnotherapy does not involve reliving or talking through the details of past emotional or physical trauma. Integral hypnotherapists only need to understand what false truths resulted from a past trauma that may block a person’s ability to achieve their goals. They then work with the individual, using evidence-based protocols to reverse those limiting beliefs and saturate their subconscious mind with positive healing ideas and imagery that support their desired transformation.

You May Not Know It, But You Are Already Experienced At Self-Hypnosis!

Many people wonder if hypnotherapy will work for them or if they can be hypnotized. Although hypnotherapy is not appropriate for everyone, the vast majority of the population can learn to use their mind to achieve a state of hypnosis. Most people are surprised to learn that hypnosis is a natural state of mind that we all experience twice daily, upon waking and just before falling asleep. During these times, your brainwaves are predominantly in the alpha state – actually in the lower end of alpha and the top of theta. Experiencing the therapeutic benefits of self-hypnosis is grounded in science and human physiology, not magical or wishful thinking. To get the most benefit from a hypnotherapy session, you must be highly motivated to achieve your goals, have an open and receptive mind, and be willing to do the self-care work between sessions. A good imagination helps, too, as visualization techniques are heavily used.

All Hypnosis Is Self-Hypnosis.

No one can control your mind during hypnosis or make you do silly things or act in ways that are against your moral code. That’s a Hollywood myth that makes for a scary movie or entertaining stage act, but it is patently untrue. All hypnosis is self-hypnosis. You are responsible for your own mind and how you use it. People can learn to control their pain in hypnosis. That’s more control, not less. Learning self-hypnosis is a re-education process and a skill. A good hypnotherapist teaches you to fish; they don’t just give you the fish. In only a few sessions, people can learn the lifelong skills they need to achieve their goals. Changing the beliefs that are behind the emotions and behaviors is the key to creating lasting transformation!

Is Hypnotherapy Right For Me?

For help with pain and other ailments, your medical provider’s or mental health provider’s approval is required to add hypnotherapy to your treatment plan. While hypnotherapy may have many beneficial effects, it is not a substitute for medical treatment or psychotherapy.

Audrey Holocher is a Certified Medical Support Clinical Hypnotherapist specializing in evidence-based protocols for natural, safe pain control, stress reduction, and behavioral change. she has an M.S. degree in Environmental Science and Engineering, a B.S. degree in Food Science and Technology, and is a Certified Narrative Consultant and Master Practitioner in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). more information at